How to Monitor Apache
CEO & Founder of Server Density.
Published on the 26th July, 2016.
Editor’s note: An earlier version of this article was published on Oct, 2, 2014.
As a core constituent of the classic LAMP stack and a critical component of any web architecture, it is a good idea to monitor Apache thoroughly.
Keep reading to find out how we monitor Apache here at Server Density.
Enabling Apache monitoring with mod_status
Most of the tools for monitoring Apache require the use of the mod_status module. This is included by default but it needs to be enabled. You will also need to specify an endpoint in your Apache config:
<Location /server-status> SetHandler server-status Order Deny,Allow Deny from all Allow from 127.0.0.1 </Location>
This will make the status page available at http://localhost/server-status on your server (check out our guide). Be sure to enable the ExtendedStatus directive to get full access to all the stats.
Monitoring Apache from the command line
Once you have enabled the status page and verified it works, you can use the command line tools to monitor the traffic on your server in real time. This is useful for debugging issues and examining traffic as it happens.
The apache-top tool is a popular method of achieving this. It is often available as a system package e.g. apt-get install apachetop but can also be downloaded from the source, as it is just a simple Python script.
Apache monitoring and alerting – Apache stats
apache-top is particularly good at i) real time debugging and ii) determining what’s happening on your server right now. When it comes to collecting statistics, however, apache-top will probably leave you wanting.
This is where monitoring products such as Server Density come in handy. Our monitoring agent supports parsing the Apache server status output and can give you statistics on
requests per second and
Apache has several process models. The most common one is worker processes running idle waiting for service requests. As more requests come in, more workers are launched to handle them—up to a pre-configured limit. Once past that limit all requests are queued and visitors experience service delays. So it’s important to monitor not only
raw requests per second but idle workers too.
A good way to configure Apache alerts is by first determining what the baseline traffic of your application is and then setting alerts around it. For example, you can generate an alert if the stats are significantly higher (indicating a sudden traffic spike) or if the values drop significantly (indicating an issue that blocks traffic somewhere).
You could also benchmark your server to figure out at what traffic level things start to slow down. This can then act as the upper limit for triggering alerts.
Apache monitoring and alerting – server stats
Monitoring Apache stats like
requests per second and
worker status is useful in keeping an eye on Apache performance, and indicates how overloaded your web server is. Ideally you will be running Apache on a dedicated instance so you don’t need to worry about contention with other apps.
Web servers are CPU hungry. As traffic grows Apache workers take up more CPU time and are distributed across the available CPUs and cores.
CPU % usage is not necessarily a useful metric to alert on because the values tend to be on a per CPU or per core basis whereas you probably have multiple instances of each. It’s more useful to monitor the average CPU utilisation across all CPUs or cores.
Using a tool such as Server Density, you can visualise all this plus configure alerts that notify you when the CPU is overloaded – our guide to understanding these metrics and configuring CPU alerts should help.
On Linux the CPU average discussed above is abstracted out to another system metric called load average. This is a decimal number rather than a percentage and allows you to view load from the perspective of the operating system i.e. how long processes have to wait for access to the CPU. The recommended threshold for load average therefore depends on how many CPUs and cores you have – our guide to load average will help you understand this further.
Monitoring the remote status of Apache
All those metrics monitor the internal status of Apache and the servers it runs on but it is also important to monitor the end user experience too.
You can achieve that by using external status and response time tools. You need to know how well your Apache instance serves traffic from different locations around the world (wherever your customers are). Based on that, you can then determine at what stage you should add more hardware capacity.
This is very easy to achieve with services like Server Density because of our in-built website monitoring. You can check the status of your public URLs and other endpoints from custom locations and get alerts when performance drops or when there is an outage.
This is particularly useful when you need graphs to correlate Apache metrics with remote response times, especially if you are benchmarking your servers and want to know when a certain load average starts to affect end-user performance.